Q. 1. Read the passage given below.
1. When you grow up in a place where it rains live months a year, wise elders help you to get acquainted with the rain early. They tell you that it is ignorant to think that it is the same rain frilling every day. Oh no, the ruin is always doing different things at different times. There is rain that is gentle, rind there is also rain that falls Ion hard and damages the crops. hence, the prayer for the sweet rain that helps the crops to grow.
2. The monsoon in the Naga hills goes by the native name, khuthotei (which means the rice- growing season). It lasts from May to early or mid. October, The local residents firmly believe that Durga l’un in October announces the end or rain. After that, one might expect a couple of short winter showers, and the spring showers in March and April. Finally, comes the lug rain’ in May; proper rain storms accompanied by heart-stopping lightning and ear splitting thunder. have stood eat in storms looking at lightning arc across dark skies, a light-And-sound show that can go on for hours,
3. This is the season when people use the word sezuo or suzu to refer to the week-long rains, when clothes don’t dry and smell of mould, when fungus forms on the floor and When you can’t see the noon or the stars because of the rainclouds. But you learn not to complain: Ruin, after all, is the farmer’s friend and brings food to the table. Rituals and festivals centre around the agricultural rhythm of life, which is the occupation of about 70 percent of the population.
4. The wise learn to understand its ways. I grew up hewing my grandfather say, It’s very windy this year. Well get good rain.” If the windy season was short and weak, he worried there might not be enough rain for the crops. I learned the interconnectedness of the seasons from childhood, and marvelled at how the wind could bring rain. Another evening, many rainy seasons ago, my paternal aunt observed the new moon and worried, its legs are in the air, we’re in for some heavy rain.” She was right. That week, a storm cut off power lines and brought down trees and bamboos.
5. Eskimos boast of having a hundred names for snow. Norwegians in the north can describe all kinds of snow by an equal amount of names pudder, powder snow, wet snow, slaps, extra wet snow, tight snowfall, dry snow, and at least 96 more categories of snow. Likewise, in India we have names and names for rain. Some are common, some are passing into history.
6. The rains are also called after flowering plants and people believe that the blossoming of those plants draws out rain. Once the monsoons set in, field work is carried out in earnest and the work of uprooting and transplanting paddy in flooded terrace fields is done. The months of hard Inbaur are June, July and August. In August, as the frog plant begins to bloom, a rain will fall. This August rain, also called phrogO, is a sign that the time for cultivation is over. If any new grain seeds are sown, they may not sprout; even if they do sprout, they are not likely to bear grain. The rain acts as a kind of farmer’s almanac.
7. The urban population of school-goers and office-goers naturally dislikes the monsoon and its accompanying problems of landslides, muddy streets and periodic infections. For non- farmers, the month of September can be depressing, when the rainfall is incessant and the awareness persists that the monsoons will last out till October. One needs to have the heart of a farmer to remain grateful for the watery days, and be able to observe — from what seems to the inexperienced as n continuous downpour — the many kinds of rain- Some of t” commonly known rain-weeks ore named after the plants that alternately bloom in August and September. The native belief is that the flowers draw out the rain.
8. Each rain period has a job to fulfil : October rain helps garlic bulbs to form, while komono rain helps the rice bear groin. Without it, the ears of rice cannot form properly. End October is the most beautiful month, in the Naga hills, as the fields turn gold Find wild sunflowers bloom over the slopes, all heralding the harvest. Prayers go up for protecting the fields from storms, and the rains to retreat because the grain needs to stand in the sun and ripen. The cycle nears completion a few weeks before the harvest, and the rain does retreat so thoroughly from the reaped furrows that the earth quickly turns hard. The months of rain become a distant memory until it starts all over again.
On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, complete the statements given below with the help of options that follow:
(a) The rains are called after flowering plants because
(i) heavy rains kill plants.
(ii) flowers grow in the rainy season.
(iii) it is believed that the plants bring the rain.
(iv) flowers grow all year round.
Answer:- The rains are called after flowering plants because it is believed that the plants bring the rain.
(b) The rain is like a calendar for farmers because
(i) it tells them when to sow and when to harvest.
(ii) it tells them the birthdays of their children.
(iii) each month has a time for plantation.
(iv) different kinds of rain tell different. Things.
Answer:- The rain is like a calendar for farmers because it tells them when to sow and when to harvest.
(c) People who live in cities don’t like rain because
(i) it brings mud and sickness with it.
(ii) they are not bothered about the farmers.
(iii) they don’t like the plants that grow during the rain.
(iv) going shopping becomes difficult.
Answer:- People who live in cities don’t like rain because it brings mud and sickness with it.
(d) People pray asking the rain to retreat because
(i) the fungus and mould need to dry.
(ii) children don’t get a chance to play.
(iii) the crops need the sun and heat to ripen.
(iv) they like to pray.
Answer:- People pray asking the rain to retreat because the crops need the sun and heat to ripen.
Answer the following questions briefly :
(e) Why do the elders want you to understand the rains in the Naga him?
Answer:- The elders wants us to understand the rains in the Naga falls because when you grow up in a place where it rains 5 months in a year it helps you to get acquainted with the situation during the rainy season
(f) What does Durga mean to the farmers of the Naga hills ?
Answer:- Durga Puja announces the end of rain in Naga hills.
(g) What kind of rain is called shizuo?
Answer:- The week – long rains, when clothes don’t dry and small of mould, when fungus forms on the floor and when you can’t see the moon or the stars because of the rain clouds is called shizuo kind of rain.
(h) What is the occupation of more than half the population of the Naga hills?
Answer:- Farming is the occupation of more than half the population of the Naga hills.
(i) How is the heart of the farmer alter-cot from that of the city person?
Answer:- The heart of a farmer is different from that of a city person as they remain grateful for the watery days and be able to observe from what seems to the inexperienced as a continuous downpour that is the many kinds of rain.
(j) When does rain become a memory in the minds of the people of the Naga hills?
Answer:- The months of rain becomes a memory in the minds of the people of the Naga hills.
(k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
(i) flowering (para 6)
(ii) nonstop (para 7)
Answer:- (i) flowering (para 6) – blossoming
(ii) nonstop (para 7) – incessant
Q. 2. Read the passage given below:
1. Every morning Ravi gives his brain an extra boast. We’re not talking about drinking strong cups (if coffee or playing one of mind-training video games advertised all over Facebook- “I jump onto my stationary bike and cycle for 45 minutes to work,” says Ravi.
“Whoa I get to my desk, my brain is at peak activity for a few hours.” After his mental focus comes to a halt Inter in the day, he starts it with another short spell or cycle i ng to be able to run errands.
2. Ride to work, ride, repeat. it’s a scientifically proven system that describes some unexpected benefits of cycling. In a recent study in the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, scientists found that people scored higher on tests of memory, reasoning. and planning after 30 minutes of spinning on a stationary bike than they did before they rude the hike. They also completed the tests faster after pedalling.
3. Exercise is like fertilizer for your brain. All those hours spent on exercising your muscles. create rich capillary beds not only in leg rind hip muscles, but also in your brain.
More blood vessels in your brain and muscles mean more oxygen and nutrients to help them work. When you pedal, you alga force more nerve cells to fire. The result you double or triple the production of these cells — literally building your brain. You also release neurotransmitters (the messengers between your brain cells) so tell those cells, new and did, can communicate with each other for hotter, faster functioning. That’s a pretty profound benefit to cyclists.
4. This kind of growth is especially important with each passing birthday, because as we age, our brains shrink and those connections weaken. Exercise restores and protects the brain cells. Neuroscientists say, “Adults Who exercise display sharper memory skills, higher concentration levels, more fluid thinking, and greater problem-solving ability than those who are sedentary”.
5. Cycling also elevates your mood, relieves anxiety, increases stress resist-once, and even banishes the blues. “Exercise works in the same way as psychotherapy and antidepressants in the treatment of depression, maybe better,” says Dr. Manjari. A recent study analyzing 26 years of research finds that even some exercise — as little as 20 to 30 minutes a day — can prevent depression over the long term.
6. Remember although it’s healthy, exercise itself is a stress, especially when you’re just getting started or getting back into riding. When you first begin to exert yourself, your body releases a particular hormone to raise your heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, says Meher Ahluwalia, PhD, a professor of integrative physiology. As you gel fitter, it takes a longer, harder ride to trigger that same response.
On the basis of your understanding of the passage, complete the statements given below with the help of the options that follow :
(a) Ravi gets his brain to work at peak level by
(i) drinking three cups of coffee.
(ii) playing games that need brain activity.
(iii) cycling on a stationary bike.
(iv) taking tablets to pump up his brain.
Answer:- Ravi gets his brain to work at peak level by cycling on a stationary bike.
(b) When nerve cells work during exercise then
(i) the body experiences stress.
(ii) the brain is strengthened by multiplying them.
(iii) you start to lose your temper.
(iv) your stationary cycle starts to beep.
Answer:- When nerve cells work during exercise then the brain is strengthened by multiplying them.
Answer the following questions briefly
(c) How does exercise help the rain ?
Answer:- Exercise restores and protects the Brain cells, multiplies the nerve cells in the brain, helps in better communication and faster functioning of the brain.
(d) Why does Ravi do a circuit of ‘ride, work, ride’ ?
Answer:- Ravi does a circuit of ‘ride, work, ride’ because it is scientifically proven system that has benefits such as higher scores on tests of memory, reasoning and planning. It also helps in completing the test faster.
(e) What is the work of neurotransmitters?
Answer:- Neurotransmitters whether new or old acts as a messenger between our brain cells, helps in better communication with each other and faster functioning
(f) What benefits other than greater brain activity does one get from cycling?
Answer:- Cycling has several benefits such as it elevates our mood, relieves anxiety, increases stress resistance and even banishes the blues.
(g) Why is exercise important for adults?
Answer:- Exercise is important for adults as it works the same way like a psychotherapy and
antidepressants helps in the treatment of depression or may be better than them.
(h) How is exercise itself a stress?
Answer:- Exercise itself is a stress especially when one just start or get back into riding because initially it exerts the body, releases a particular hormone to raise heart rate, blood pressure and blood glucose levels.
(i) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following: [1 x 2 =2]
(i) manure (para 3)
(ii) inactive (pare 4)
Answer:- (i) manure (para 3) – Fertilizer
(ii) inactive (pare 4) – Sedentary
Q. 3. Read the passage given below :
1. Keeping cities clean is essential for keeping their residents healthy. Our health depends not just on personal hygiene nutrition, but critically also on how clean we keep our cities and their surroundings. The spread of Dengue and chikungunya are intimately linked to the deteriorating state of public health conditions in our cities.
2. The good news is that waste management to keep cities clean is now getting attention through the Swachh Bharat Mission, However, much of the attention begins and stops with the brooms and dustbins, extending at most to the collection and transportation of the mixed waste to some distant or not so distant places, preferably out of sight.
3. The challenge of processing nod treating the different streams of solid waste, and safe disposal or the residuals in scientific Innelfills, has received much less attention in municipal solid waste management thou in expected from n health point of view.
4. One of the problems is that instead of focusing on waste management for health, we have got sidetracked into ‘waste for energy” If only we were to begin by net mixing the biodegradable component of solid waste close to 60 percent of the total) in our cities with the dry waste, and instead use this stream of waste for composting and producing a gas called methane.
5. City compost from biodegradable waste provides an alternative to farmyard manure. (like cow-dung), it provides an opportunity to simultaneously clean up our cities and help improve agricultural productivity and quality of the soil. Organic manure or compost plays a very important role as a supplement to chemical fertilisers in enriching the nutrient-deficient soils. City compost can be the new player in the field.
6. Benefits of compost on the farm are well-known. The water holding capacity of the soil which uses compost helps with drought-proofing; rind the requirement of less water per crop is a welcome feature for a water-stressed future. By making the soil porous. use of compost also makes roots stronger and resistant to pests and actor. Farmers using compost, therefore, need less quantity of pesticide. There is also evidence to suggest that horticulture crops grown with compost have better flavour, size, colour and shelf-life.
7. City compost has the additional advantage of being weed-free unlike farmyard manure which bring with it the seeds of undigested grass and requires a substantial additional labour cost for weeding as the crops grow. City compost is also rich in organic carbon, and cur soils are short in this.
8. Farmers clearly recognize the value of city compost. If city waste was composted before making it available to the farmers for applying to the soil cities would be cleaned up and the fields around them would Lie much more productive.
9. Quite apart from cleaning up the cities of biodegradable waste, this would be a major and sustainable contribution to improving the health of our soil without further damage by excessive chemical inputs. What a marvellous change from waste to health!
10. The good news is that some states more regularly laying plastic roads. Plastic roads will not only withstand future monsoon damage but will also solve a city’s problem of disposing of non-recyclable plastic. It is clear that if the mountains of waste from our cities were to be recycled into road construction material, it would tackle the problem of managing waste while freeing up scarce land.
(a) On the basis of your understanding the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:- Clean and Green City or Swachh Bharat Mission Keeping our cities clean is ess for keeping residents healthy. The health of citizens depends on personal hygiene, nutrition and cleanliness around as. If the locality or area is unhygienic there are chances of many diseases spreading among people.
The good news is that waste mgmt is given more attention due to Swachh Bharat mission and many dustbins are placed in the areas. Wastes are segregated for safe disposal of solid waste, especially scientific landfills. There is more emphasis on segregating waste but it recd less attention by Municipal team.
City compost from biodegradable waste is an alternative to this. We can make use of these biodegradable waste into manure. This manure can be used as a supplement to chemical fertilisers and enrich the quality of soil. There are several other benefits of this manure such increasing the water holding capacity of soil, makes soil porous, makes it stronger and also resistant to pests and decay. It’s also weed – free which brings with it the seeds of undigested grass and requires a substantial additional labour cost for in organic carbon.
Farmers understand the value of city compost or manure. But before making manure available to farmers we should clean the cities to gather the components of these manure. This will not only improve the quantity of soil or crop but will also contribute towards cleanliness in the city.
Also, the good news is that some states are regularly laying plastic roads as they will not only withstand future monsoon damage but also solve city’s problem disposing non- recyclable plastic. If we manage the waste in the city or locality, we ultimately contribute towards or cleanliness of the locality.
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.
Answer:- The passage clearly mentions about the segregation of waste that we need to do so that it can be recycled or reused and also helps in keeping our locality or city clean. Now–a–days, due to Swachh Bharat Mission, there is more attention to segregate the garbage compost that can be used to create manure which can be helpful to the farmer in agriculture and save the environment. Cleanliness in the locality also helps citizens to stay healthy. Also, we are trying several options to reuse plastic and trying to create plastic road. In the end, we need to learn waste management as this will help us in several ways.
Q. 4. You are FaizFalnk Muzumdar living at 39, Udhampur Colony, Shimla. You decide to hold a dinner party to congratulate your grandparents on their golden wedding anniversary.
Draft a formal invitation in not more than 110 words to all family members to attend a grand dinner at home.
Answer:- Faiz/ Falak Mazumdar
Request the pleasure of your company on the auspicious occasion of the
50th Wedding Anniversary Celebration
Sunday, The 08th of May, 2018.
at our residence 39, Udhampur Colony, Shimla
from 7 p.m. onwards followed by dinner.
Phone : 012345678
Q .4 You are Harish/Harshita of 12, Seva Nagar, Pune. You want to sell your flat as you are mother city for work. Draft to a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in The Pune Times under the classified columns.
FLAT FOR SALE
Available a spacious, fully furnished flat in prime localities of Pune. Close to the station. Ground floor, 2 bedrooms with attached bathroom, modular kitchen and spacious balcony. Car parking available. 24hr water and power supply. Owner going abroad. Reasonable price.
Genuine parties may contact Harsh/ Harshita Jain, Mobile – 012345678.
Q. 5. You are Neeraj/Neeraja Shekhar, Principal. Vasant Public School, Pune. Your school has just started a music department. Write it letter to the Manager or Melody House, Pune wholesale suppliers of musical instruments. placing an order for musical instruments for the school. Ask for as discount on the catalogue prices.
Vasant Public School,
Pune – 040008
08th March, 2018
Pune – 040010.
Subject : Placing an order for musical instruments
With the start of the new academic session, we’d like to place an order for musical instruments in the school section.
Following are the specifications of the order:
I’d be grateful if the order could reach us by 20th March, 2018 at the school address mentioned above. Since we are your regular customer we would like to avail a discount of 15% on the order from the catalogue price. Payment would be made is cash on delivery of goods in proper condition.
Q .5 Bal Vidya Public School, Bhilai, urgently requires a post-graduate teacher to teach political science for which they have placed an advertisement in The Bhilai Express. You are Sanjay/Sanjana Sharma from 21, Vasant,Draft a letter including a CV, applying for the advertised post.
206, Rose Villa
18th May 2018
Bal Vidya Public School
Subject : Application for the post of political science Teacher.
In response to your advertisement in “The Bhilai Express” dated 16th May 2018, I wish to offer my services for the post of teacher of political science in your renowned school. I am a young teacher post graduate with B.Ed from Jaipur University. I have 2 years of experience in a reputed school. I wish to work with your school and support the growth of your organisation and also my career advancement.
I am enclosing my bio–data herewith for your kind reference. If selected, I assure you that I shall work with utmost devotion and sincerity to your full satisfaction. I look forward to attending an interview at your earliest convenience.
Yours faithfully Sd/
Enclosuress : (1) Bio – data
(2) Copies of certificate
(3) Passport size photograph.
BIO – DATA
NAME : SANjANA SHARMA
AGE AND BATE OF BIRTH : 28 YEARS, 18TH JANE 1990.
FATHER’S NAME : DARSHAN SHARMA
NATIONALITY : INDIAN
GENDER : FEMALE
MARITAL STATUS : SINGLE
ADDRESS FOR COMMUNICATION : 21, VASANT MARG, BHILAI.
Q. 6. Recent floods in many metropolitan cities of the country during the monsoon Henson laid bare the hollowness of the claims of the civic authorities of their preparedness. The poor hod to hear the brunt or the problem while no one was ever held accountable. Write an article in 150 — 200 words on the common man’s woes during the monsoons and the need for accountability of the officials concerned. You are sumit/smita Verma
Mumbai Stops Again!
By Sumit/ Smita, Class XII
Mumbai once again came to a stand still on the amount of heavy rain. But rainfall over the last day is nowhere as overwhelming as what the city experienced on 26th July, 2005 when it received almost 95 cm of rain. The city faced a lot of problems and issues in terms of transportation as there was water – logging everywhere, telephone services where impacted, even the lifeline of the city the local trains were badly impacted and was at halt. People had a lot of difficulties reaching home and many of them were stuck at different places. But the spirit of Mumbaikars was the same were volunteers still gathered to help each other in such times and later the city was getting back to normal. The damage wrought by the rainfall on 26th August (Tuesday) could have been mitigated if the Municipal authorities and State Government cared enough over decades. The officials need to find a long term solution for Mumbai’s frequent flooding problem.
Q. 6.You are MI/Alia Head girl/Head boy of your school. You are deeply disturbed by the rising cases of aggressive behaviour of students in your school. You decide to speak riu rig t. arming assembly about it. Write a speech on ‘Indiscipline in schools’. (150 — 20 ‘words)
Respected principal, teachers and dear friends.
Today, I Ali/Alia, am here to express my views on “Indiscipline in schools”. We have observed that these days there are a lot of indiscipline complaints with the volunteer group and also with teachers. Indiscipline among the students comes where they don’t listen to teachers/volunteers and take schools rules and regulations in hand where this used to be a generation ago. But being a head boy/ girl, I would request each one of your that we are students and we should always try to lead a disciplined life. Student life is where we build our character. This is the time when we all should try to build up a sound body and sound mind. The sole aim of student life is to gain knowledge as we are the future of our nation. This aim can only be achieved when we students respect our teachers and concentrate on studies. We should not indulge into the acts of indiscipline which will in the end spoil the life of a child and the consequences are to be faced by both the student and their parents. In the end I would request each one of you to kindly co – operate and abide by the rules of the school as we are one family and always be together to help each other in good and bad times.
Q. 7. Academic excellence in the only requirement for a successful career.” Write a debate either for or against the motion. (120 – 150 words)
The heavy emphasis on academic performance has changed the educator’s point of view completely. The focus on acquiring skills and information through cramming is greater than the application of principles of learning about a practical life. And the obsession with marks, which are considered to be the sole indicator of one’s merit has resulted in such a phenomenon that fundamental tools of education like basic problem solving, team spirit and justice are ignored completely. What you learn in school are facts, known facts. Your job at school is to accumulate and remember facts, the better you do.
People who are conventionally clever get jobs on their qualifications (the past), not on their desire to succeed (the future). In today’s world, especially among the youths there is the notion that success in life is not based on education. Unfortunately, many do not understand what it means to have an education or what really, an education is. A good education is essential, as it not only teaches on the necessary skills required in the world of work, but also prepares the mind to make sane, healthy and intelligent decision about any situation that one may encounter on life’s journey. If a person is educated and specialized in his field he can do all the related works and be a creative mind to bring more invention. But simply, academic excellence will not help an individual to grow in life. We need to groom our personality overall because now-a-days the market requirement is multipurpose and they want all the possible quality in one candidate who can manage things personally and professionally both. Hence, in my opinion, success requires a combination of academic excellence with other essential life skills.
MMD School, Nashik, recently organised a science symposium on the topic :
‘Effect of pollution on quality of life’. You are Raazdan„ editor of the school magazine. Write a report on the event for your school magazine. (120 — 150 words)
Effect of pollution on quantity of life
( By : Amit/ Amita Raazdan)
8th June, Nashik
Noise pollution is often ignored by all of as. It is the consequences that we face due to regular exposure to consistent elevated sound levels. This is a common issue faced by most of the citizens in their localities. We may not understand the consequences now but it really impacts all of us in fact the quality of life as well as. Noise pollution has many physical and psychological health impacts for humans. Noise induced hearing loss, cardiovascular effects and distracts a human mentally. It can lead to problems like stress, annoyance, headache, etc………
In the science symposium conducted recently the topic has been discussed in detail as we need to reduce pollution. As discussed, a strict law needs to be enforced to ensure that the level of noise pollution in a particular area reduces to a certain extent. We understand that celebrations are done but at the same time we need to understand its ill – effects. The major impacted are old – age group and the babies. Hence, there should be certain decibel of volume which should be permitted accordingly and time – limit that has been given till 10 p.m. should be followed. If the above rules are violated and any complaints are made then strict actions will be taken against this. We also need to understand that this noise pollution not only impacts human but animals. So, if we follow strict law and bring certain changes this will benefit all of us.
(Literature : Textbooks and Long Reading Text)
Q. 8. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
…..and clear rills
That for themselves a cooling convert make
Against the hot season: the mid forest brake.
Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms: ………..
(a) identify the poem And the poet.
Answer:- The poem is “ A thing of Beauty” and the port is John Keats.
(b) What is the role of the clear rills ?
Answer:- The clear rills make a cooling cover for themselves.
(c) How has the mid forest brake become rich?
Answer:- The mid forest brake became rich with a sprinkling of fair musk – rose blooms.
(d) Name the figure of speech in ‘cooling covert’.
Answer:- Alliteration – The sound ‘C’ is repeated.
…….On their slag heap, them children.
Wear ‘skins pooped through b bones null spectacles of steel
With mended glass, like bottle bits on stones.
(a) Name the poem and the poet.
Answer:- The poem is “An Elementary school classroom in a slum” and the poet is Stephen Spender.
(b) Explain : ‘slag heap’.
Answer:- The ‘slag heap’ means that the poet is pointing to the children of the slum who are extremely starved & malnourished. They appear so thin like a skeleton. Their world is full of dirt & garbage & they spend their life raking these slag heaps.
(c) What future awaits these children?
Answer:- The future of these children is miserable & uncertain.
(d) Name the figure of speech used in the third line.
Answer:- Simile: The children are compared directly to the bottle bits of stone.
Q. 9. Answer any four of the following questions in 30- 40 words each
(a) What does the poet’s smile in the poem, ‘My Mother at Sixty-six’ show?
Answer:- The poet’s smile in the poem signifies that it was difficult to hide her feelings of insecurity. The pale and senile appearance of her mother bring back her childhood fear of losing her mother. She can definitely experience the pain of separation, yet she bids her farewell in a pleasant manner. She reassures her mother that all will be well and they would meet again.
(b) Listening to them, I see two distinct worlds . In the context of Mukesh, the bangle maker’s son, which two worlds is Anees Jung referring to?
Answer:- The author is referring to two different worlds. The families of the bangle – makers belong to one of these worlds. These workers are caught in the web of poverty. They are also burdened by the stigma of the caste in which they are born. They know no other work. The other world is the vicious. Circle of the money lenders, the middlemen, the policemen, the keepers of the law, the bureaucrats and the politicians.
(c) Though the sharecroppers of Chain ran received only one-fourth of the compensation, how can the Champaran struggle still be termed a huge success and victory ?
Answer:- The Champaran episode began as an attempt to ease the sufferings of large number of poor peasants. Gandhiji admits that what he had done was a very ordinary thing. He declared that the British could not order him about his own country. He got spontaneous support of thousands of people. The efforts of Gandhiji and support of people made Champaran struggle a huge success and victory.
(d) Which article in Mcleery’s suitcase placed perhaps the most significant role in Eva’s escape and how?
Answer:- The suitcase that McLerry had a sealed question paper envelope, a yellow invigilation form, a special authentication card for the Examination Board, a paper knife, a Bible, the current copy of church times and a small semi-inflated rubber ring. But Mccleery’s semi-inflated ring played a significant role. McLerry told Jackson that he is suffering from haemorrhoids (piles) and the ring helps him when he has to sit for a long time. In reality, the ring contained pig blood, which Evans would splatter on his head and escape from the hospital as Mc Lerry who has been injured.
(e) Why does Derry’s mother does not want him to go back to visit Mr. Lamb.
Answer:- Derry’s mother oppose him to visit Mr. Lamb as she says that she has heard things about him. Infact, she has been warned. Though they have lived there for three months, she knows what is worth knowing & Derry will not go.
(f) What considerations influenced the Tiger King to get married?
Answer:- In 10 years, Tiger king killed 70 tigers and didn’t find any in Pratibandapuram which influenced him to get married to a girl from a royal family so that he had more tigers to compete his target.
Q. 10. Answer the following question in 120 -150 words.
In one’s approach to life one should be practical and not live in a world of dreams. How is Jansie’s attitude different from that of Sophie?
Answer:- In one’s approach to life one should be practical & not live in a world of dream is a fact. But Jansie & Sophie both had different attitude & approach life. Sophie and Jansie are poles apart in tastes and temperament. Sophie has fantastic dreams and oats in a fairy land. She is an incurable escapist who won’t come out of her dreams. Jansie is down to earth—a realist. Sophie wants to do something sophisticated. Jansie knows that these things require a lot of money which their families do not possess. Jansie also knows that they were earmarked for the biscuit factory. She even advises Sophie to be sensible and practical. Sophie considers Jansie ‘nosey’ and does not want to concede in her.
Q. 10. Fear is something that we must overcome if we want to succeed in life. How did Douglas get over his fear of water?
Answer:- It is rightly said that fear is something that we must learn to overcome if we want to succeed in life and that’s what Douglas did to overcome his fear of water. Even after the swimming training was over, Douglas wasn’t confident about his swimming or that he had overcome the fear. He was determined to completely get rid of it forever. He swam alone in the pool. He went to Lake Wentworth to dive. There, he tried every possible stroke he had learnt. He fought back the tiny vestiges of terror that gripped him in the middle of the lake. Finally, in his diving expedition in the Warm Lake, he realised that he had truly conquered his old terror.
Q. 11. Answer the following question in 120 — 150 words.
At the end of the storytelling session, why does Jock consider Himself “caught in an ugly middle position’ ?
Answer:- Jack feels that he has been caught in an ugly middle position physically, emotionally as well as mentally. The woodwork, a cage of mouldings and rails and skirting boards all around them was half old tan and half new ivory. He was conscious of his duties as a father and as a husband. Little Bobby was already asleep. His efforts to make Jo fall asleep proved quite fatiguing. She kept on interrupting him, asking for clarifications, pointing errors and suggesting alternatives. Jack did not like that women should take anything for granted. He liked them to be apprehensive. So, he extended the story, though he was in haste to go down stairs and help his pregnant wife in her hard work of painting the woodwork. The result of the extension to the story proved unfruitful and unpleasant for Jo, Jack and Clare. Jo wanted him to change the ending of the story. Clare complained that he had told a long story. Jack felt utter weariness and did not want to speak with his wife or work with her or touch her. He was really caught in an ugly middle position.
Q. 11. It may take a long time for oppression to be resisted, but the seeds of rebellion are sown early in life. How did Zitkala-Sa face oppression as a child an did she overcome it?
Answer:- Zitkala-Sa was a victim of social and cultural oppression by the victors who had overpowered them by their sheer strength. They were prejudiced towards Native American culture and women. They adopted force and oppression to compel the natives to shed their age-old traditions and customs. The cutting of the long hair of Zitkala-Sa is a symbol of their oppression. She opposed this prejudice and oppression by rebelling against it. She protested with all her strength. Bama was a victim of caste system. She had seen, felt and experienced the evils of untouchability when she was studying in the third standard. She felt humiliated by what it was. She struggled hard against this social discrimination. She studied hard and topped in her class. Many students became her friends. Thus, both Zitkala-Sa and Bama fought the existing circumstances with courage and determination and ended the prejudice, discrimination and oppression.
Q. 12.Answer the following question in 120 — 150 words:
How does the perception and attitude of the villagers of Raveloe towards Silas Marner change from the beginning to the end of the novel ?
Answer:- The change In the villagers. perception of Silas was very gradual and directly proportional to the changes.Silas was scary, ignorant even mean and unapproachable. This was because Silas himself had made life unapproachable, isolated and prone to enigma with his attitude towards people and his lack of Interest in being a part of the community. When the day came that his gold was stolen, Silas began to lose his mind, ventured out of the house and ended up at the Rainbow Inn in a form of pan, attack- which caused panic in a way in those present. When he began to accuse people, he was angry so he made them angry as well, But when a finally cowed down and broke down his pain was so sincere, and his frustration so evident that he touched the hearts of the people. They immediately quit their ideas about him and saw a very real person, immensely wounded and who has hit rock bottom. Then compassion hit because they saw themselves In his position, identified with him greatly, and offered their condolences and help to at least bring him back to sanity. In general, the people of Raveloe, brought together the most significant characteristics of a close-knit community: Charity, cooperation, and unity because even though they were clearly aware that Silas Marner was still one of them, regardless of being an isolated person. Silas was part of Raveloe .
Q. 12. How do you perceive Dr. Kemp based on his in interaction with Griffin? (The Invisible Man).
Answer:- Griffin and Dr Kemp were old acquaintances and both were scientists. However, Griffin wanted to establish a reign of terror and Dr Kemp thought about the social conditions of the future. Griffin was an eccentric scientist. He wanted to smite everyone who came in his way. On the other hand, Dr Kemp thought of the greater good. Even before Griffin had mentioned his sinister plans, Dr Kemp had decided to turn him over to the police. After hearing his plans, Dr Kemp was shocked. Realising the threat that Griffin posed to the society, he was hell bent upon capturing him. Therefore, it is not right to call Dr Kemp a traitor. Though he had cheated Griffin, he was thinking about the betterment of the society. He wanted to save the society from the devil that Griffin was.
Q. 13.Answer the following question in 120 — 150 words:
How is Godfrey Cass different from his younger brother, Dunstan?
Answer:- The two sons of Squire Cass, Godfrey and Dunstan (Dunsey) known by way or their father who is a respectable and relatively wealthy man in on with the rest of the people of Raveloe. As children don’t upper-class home the two grew up in idleness from what the narrator tells us. Yet, out of the two sons the highest hope is laid on Godfrey, the eldest of the two sons, who is described as a fine, open-faced good-natured young man. Godfrey seems to appear to the public as the elder, kinder, and nicer of the two brothers, only these clays the townsfolk agreed that Mr. Godfrey didn’t look halls fresh-colored and open as he used to do.The suspicion is that Godfrey is following the steps of his wayward brother. Dunsey, who is quite possibly his exact opposite, raking them an allusion to Cain and Mel. Dunstan’s influence in Godfrey has made the latter change the good-humored, affectionate-hearted Godfrey was now becoming a bitter man & visited Mid cruel wishes. Although Godfrey does enjoy more respect than his brother, we that he is weak of character, prone to being misled and easily fooled. The evidence or this lies In that Godfrey now drinks and covers up for his brother’s wrongdoings. To make matters worse Godfrey married a laudanum addicted fathered a child with her I best to hide the truth from his father. Godfreys physique contrasts with his lack of character. He is also described as lacking resolution, and of being morally coward. That muscular frame of his held plenty of animal courage, but helped him to no decision when the dangers to be brave where such as could neither be knocked down nor throttled. Dunstan Cass described with more negatively than Godfrey. Physically, he is described as a thick-set, heavy-looking young man entered, with the Pushed are and the gratuitously elated bearing which mark the first stage of intoxication. Dunstan, is the leader of the two. He is arrogant senseless and selfish. He Is also younger than Godfrey, who is twenty-six yrs old. In terms of his behavior he is more lose and daring than Godfrey; Eliot also says that Dunstan Is Intellectually dull in comparison. It is dear that Dunstan holds a lot of contempt against Godfrey, and it is evident Int:hew,’ that speaks to him disrespectfully despite him being his older brother. The had marriage choice Mat Godfrey made was like fuel for Dunstan, who obviously tries to bring his brother down to his level. His overall character is described as “spiteful” and “jeering”, with a taste for swapping and betting and with humus disregard for the well-being or safety of others, especially his brother. Godfrey and Dunstan are actually quite different. However, Dunstan’s presence and influence on Godfrey is what brings out Godfrey’s negative traits at the beginning of the novel. Once Dunstan is out of the picture, things become better for his elder brother.
Q. 13. “Misdirected and self-serving ambition essentially remains an exercise in futility.” Describe Grillin’s character in the light of the above statement.
Answer:- “Misdirected and self-serving ambition essentially remains and exercise in futility” best describes the character of Griffin in the lesson. He is an albino, a prodigy, a meritorious student but extremely short-tempered by nature. In the beginning of the novel, he comes to Iping (a small hillside village of London) as a wrapped up mystery who remains covered with bandages from top to bottom. Initially, he starts his career as a teacher but soon gets attracted towards the formula of being invisible under the supervision of Professor Oliver. He leaves no stone unturned to succeed in his mission but argues with his mentor due to credit-taking issue. He forsakes the profession & company of Prof. Oliver to work single handedly. Therefore, he changes his abode and goes to stay in The Great Portland Street where he almost succeeds in being invisible. Due to his stealing of his father’s money, his father commits suicide but he remains unaffected and focused At first, he feels extremely proud of his invisibility but soon he realised the shortcomings of being invisible. In his anger, he burns his landlords house and escapes from there. He comes across many problems being naked and isolated. He reaches Dr.Kemp’s house where he discloses his all secrets and offers him a partnership in his misdeeds. Dr. Kemp, being an altruist, plans to get him arrested but fails in his plan. Griffin, knowing the intention of Dr. Kemp, threatens him to be killed but in his pursuit of killing him, becomes a prey to masons who hit him a spade and later suffocates him. He becomes visible after his death and his desire of being visible remains a dream till he survives. His arrogance and pride leads him to death in the end.